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Evaluation Guide for Pedestrian Safety: Summary of Evaluation Steps

Checklist provides a step-by-step visual for navigating and completing each of the sections and their corresponding steps throughout the evaluation guide

Citation(s):

Created by Safe States Alliance (2017). Evaluation Guide for Pedestrian Safety: Summary of Evaluation Step

Intended Audiences and Potential Evaluation Roles Table

Table shows example evaluation roles for pedestrian safety professionals and relevant partners

Citation(s):

Adapted from: U.S. Department of Transportation National Highway Traffic Safety Administration. 2014 Pedestrian Safety Enforcement Operations: A How-To Guide
Boston Department of Transportation. 2001 Access Boston 2000-2010 Pedestrian Safety Guidelines for Residential Streets: Safety Guidelines for Residential Streets.
World Health Organization 2010 Pedestrian safety A road safety manual for decision-makers and practitioners.

Evaluation vs. Research Table

Table shows characteristics of each approach and highlights noteworthy difference

Citation(s):

U.S. Department of Health and Human Services Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Office of the Director, Office of Strategy and Innovation. Introduction to program evaluation for public health programs: A self-study guide. Atlanta, GA: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2011.

Pedestrian Safety Intervention Strategies and Domains

Presents a framework for organizing pedestrian safety intervention strategies across seven domains: Collaboration, Advocacy, Encouragement, Education, Land Use & Planning, Engineering, and Enforcement

Citation(s):

Safe States Alliance, The Evaluation Group, Transtria (2017). Pedestrian Safety Intervention Strategies and Doma

NHTSA National Priority Safety Program

Congress HR 22 Fixing America’s Surface Transportation Act’ or the "FAST Act" (See page 29.)

Citation(s):

National Highway and Transportation Administration’s (NHTSA) Section 405 National Priority Safety Program Fixing America’s Surface (FAST) Act Authorization of the Transportation Program Safety Grant (January 2015).

NHTSA Countermeasures that Work

A reference to assist traffic safety and other professionals in selecting effective, evidence-based countermeasures for traffic safety problem areas

Citation(s):

National Highway Traffic Safety Administration. (2016, January). Countermeasures That Work, Eighth Edition. (Traffic Tech Technology Transfer Series. Report No. DOT HS 812 239). Washington,

FHWA nonmotorized safety requirements for State DOTs

Website provides helpful resources to support the implementation of the Safety Performance Management Final Rule that establishes the process for State DOTs and MPOs to establish and report their safety targets, and the process that FHWA will use to assess whether State DOTs have met or made significant progress toward meeting their safety targets

Citation(s):

US Department of Transportation Federal Highway Administration. Highway Safety Improvement Program - Safety Performance Management Website

FHWA How to develop a Pedestrian Safety Action Plan

Report presents an overview and framework for state and local agencies to develop and implement a Pedestrian Safety Action Plan tailored to their specific problems and needs

Citation(s):

Federal Highway Administration Office of Highway Safety. How to Develop a Pedestrian Safety Action Plan. FHWA-SA-05-12. Revised March 2009

FHWA Pedestrian & Bicycle Safety website

Report documents a comprehensive analysis of pedestrian crash data trends and factors, a detailed review of more than 200 publications on pedestrian safety, and input from more than 25 expert stakeholder members

Citation(s):

US Department of Transportation Federal Highway Administration. Pedestrian Safety Strategic Plan: Recommendations for Research and Product Development. October 2010. FHWA-SA-10-035

Section 1

Governance Principles

Provides guidance on developing a governance structure and process for partnerships

Citation(s):

Z. Simon, S. Radovich. Governing Collaborative Governance: Enhancing development outcomes by improving partnership governance and accountability. Accountability and the Corporate Responsibility Initiative, Working Paper No. 23. Cambridge, MA: John F. Kennedy School of Government, Harvard University.

WHO Commission on SDOH

Provides background on equity, inequity, and disparity

Citation(s):

CSDH (2008). Closing the gap in a generation: health equity through action on the social determinants of health. Final Report of the Commission on Social Determinants of Health. Geneva, World Health Organization.

Unnatural Causes documentary

Provides background on equity, inequity, and disparity

Citation(s):

Unnatural Causes. Changing the way America thinks about health. (Dec 2009). PBS documentary series. a production of California Newsreel with Vital Pictures, Inc. Presented for public television by the National Minority Consortia. Impact campaign in association with the Joint Center for Political and Economic Studies Health Policy Institute.

NACCHO Health Equity and Social Justice Committee

Provides background on equity, inequity, and disparity

Citation(s):

National Association of County and City Health Officials.

RWJ Commission on SDOH

Provides background on equity, inequity, and disparity

Citation(s):

Beyond Health Care: New Directions to a Healthier America. (April 2009) The Robert Wood Johnson Foundation Commission to Build a Healthier America

Sample Budget

Provides guidelines for developing a budget

Citation(s):

National Criminal Justice Reference Service

Pedestrian Safety Intervention Strategies and Domains

Presents a framework for organizing pedestrian safety intervention strategies across seven domains: Collaboration, Advocacy, Encouragement, Education, Land Use & Planning, Engineering, and Enforcement.

Citation(s):

Safe States Alliance, The Evaluation Group, Transtria (2017). Pedestrian Safety Intervention Strategies and Domains.

Section 2

How to Develop a Pedestrian Safety Action Plan

Presents an overview and framework for state and local agencies to implement a Pedestrian Safety Action Plan

Citation(s):

Zegger, C. V., Sandt, L., & Scully, M. (2006, February). How to Develop a Pedestrian Safety Action Plan [PDF]. Chapel Hill

Advancing Pedestrian and Bicyclist Safety: A Primer for Highway Safety Professions

A reference guide for an integrated and comprehensive effort to improve pedestrian and bicycle safety

Citation(s):

Brookshire, K., Sandt, L., Sundstrom, C., Thomas, L., & Blomberg, R. (2016, April). Advancing pedestrian and bicyclist safety: A primer for highway safety professionals (Report No. DOT HS 812 258). Washington, DC: National Highway Traffic Safety Administration

Road Diet (Roadway Reconfiguration)

A technical assistance guide for roadway reconfiguration

Citation(s):

Road Diet Information Guide. (2014, November 24). Retrieved May 20, 2017

Street Design: Part 1-Complete Streets

An article that reviews street polices and discusses how to make the transportation system more accessible for all travelers

Citation(s):

Street Design: Part 1-Complete Streets. (n.d.). Retrieved May 20, 2017

Complete Streets

An online guide to support planning, designing, and operating of roadways efforts

Citation(s):

Complete Streets. (2015, August 24). Retrieved May 20, 2017.

Complete Streets Polices

The National Complete Streets Coalition’s list of complete street polices

Citation(s):

Complete Streets Policies. (2015, August 24). Retrieved May 20, 2017.

Identifying the Components of a Logic Model

Worksheet that discusses the components of a logic model

Citation(s):

Identifying the Components of a Logic Model [Worksheet that discusses the components of a logic model]. (n.d.).

Introduction to Program Evaluation for Public Health Programs: A Self-Study Guide

A digital PDF that is a self-guide tutorial of how develop a program evaluation

Citation(s):

U.S. Department of Health and Human Services Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Office of the Director, Office of Strategy and Innovation. Introduction to program evaluation for public health programs: A self-study guide. Atlanta, GA: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2011.

Logic Model Workbook

A “do-it-yourself guide” to the concepts and use of a logic model that describes the steps necessary for you to create logic models for your own interventions.

Citation(s):

Innovation Network. Retrieved July 11, 2017 from: http://www.gnof.org/wp-content/uploads/2013/07/eval-logic_workbook.pdf

Section 3

Evaluation Design Illustrations

This table shows descriptions, examples, and graphic depictions of each evaluation design along with causality and strength of attribution

Citation(s):

Adapted from: Measurement, Learning & Evaluation (MLE) Project (evaluation component of the Urban Reproductive Health Initiative).

Evaluation Design: Strengths and Weaknesses

This table shows strengths and weaknesses of each design, along with a description and example pedestrian safety intervention evaluations for each design

Citation(s):

Adapted from: University of Albany Center for Problem-Oriented Policing. Assessing Responses to Problems: An Introductory Guide for Police Problem-Solver. Appendix D: Summary of Evaluation Designs’ Strengths and Weaknesses.

Lyons, R. A., D., Kendrick, E. M. L.,Towner, C., Coupland, M., Hayes, M, et al. The Advocacy for Pedestrian Safety Study: Cluster Randomised Trial Evaluating a Political Advocacy Approach to Reduce Pedestrian Injuries in Deprived Communities. 2013. PLoS ONE, 8(4), e60158.

Zegeer, C., D Henderson, R Blomberg, L Marchetti, S Masten, Y Fan, L Sandt, A Brown, J Stutts, and L Thomas. Evaluation of the Miami-Dade Pedestrian Safety Demonstration Project. National Highway Traffic Safety Administration. Washington, DC, 2008.

Pennsylvania Department of Transportation Bureau of Planning and Research. C. Strong, M. Kumar. Western Transportation Institute College of Engineering Montana State University. Safety Evaluation of Yield-to-Pedestrian Channelizing Devices: Final Report. 2006

O'Connor, E., J. Bellamy, B. Spring. Evidence-Based Behavioral Practice Online Training Course. Critical Appraisal: Time Series Designs.

Huitema, RV Houten, H Manal. Time-series intervention analysis of pedestrian countdown timer effects. Accident Analysis & Prevention 2014. 72:23–31.

Compiled from Federal Highway Administration Office of Natural and Human Environment 2005. Pedestrian and Bicycle Data Collection in United States Communities: Quantifying Use, Surveying Users, and Documenting Facility Extent.

G*Power

A tool to compute statistical power analyses for many different t tests, F tests, χ2 tests, z tests and some exact tests. G*Power can also be used to compute effect sizes and to display graphically the results of power analyses.

Citation(s):

Faul, F., Erdfelder, E., Lang, A.-G., & Buchner, A. (2007). G*Power 3: A flexible statistical power analysis program for the social, behavioral, and biomedical sciences. Behavior Research Methods, 39, 175-191

Power and Sample Size .com

Free and open source online calculators

Citation(s):

Power and Sample Size . Com. 2013-2017 HyLown Consulting LLC. Atlanta, GA

PS

An interactive computer program for performing statistical power and sample size calculations

Citation(s):

William D. Dupont and Walton D. Plummer, Jr. (2014) PS: Power and Sample Size Calculation version 3.1.2.

PowerUp!

A tool that provides convenient excel-based functions to determine minimum detectable effect size and minimum required sample size for various experimental and quasi-experimental designs

Citation(s):

Nianbo Dong, Benjamin M Kelcey, Jessaca Spybrook, Rebecca Maynard. Designing and analyzing multilevel experiments and quasi-experiments for causal evaluation. Funded by: National Science Foundation [DGE-1437679, DGE-1437692, DGE-1437745], and Institute of Education Sciences [R305B090015].

PowerUp!R

R package version of PowerUp! and additionally includes functions to determine sample size for various multilevel randomized experiments with or without budgetary constraints

Citation(s):

Bulus, M., & Dong, N. (2017). PowerUpR: Power Analysis Tools for Multilevel Randomized Experiments. R package version 0.1.3.

R Package pwr

A package of tools with functions for basic power calculations using effect sizes and notations from Cohen (1988).

Citation(s):

Stephane Champely, Claus Ekstrom, Peter Dalgaard, Jeffrey Gill, Stephan Weibelzahl, Aditya Anandkumar, Clay Ford, Robert Volcic, Helios De Rosario. (2017). pwr: Basic Functions for Power Analysis 1.2-1.

Russ Lenth's power and sample-size page

Software is intended to be useful in planning statistical studies.

Citation(s):

Lenth, R. V. (2006-9). Java Applets for Power and Sample Size [Computer software].

WebPower

A free collection of tools for conducting statistical power analysis online

Citation(s):

Zhiyong Johnny Zhang, Ke-Hai Yuan et al. WebPower: Statistical power analysis online. Supported by a grant from the Department of Education (R305D140037).

SampSize (app for Android, iOS iPhone, iPad)

An application to assist in the design of clinical trials by calculating the sample size using inputs provided by the user

Citation(s):

SampSize. epiGenesys. Developed in cooperation with Steven A Julious, Medical Statistics Group, School of Health and Related Research, The University of Sheffield.

Section 4

Steps in Conducting a Scholarly Mixed Methods Study

A PowerPoint presentation that discusses the components of conducting a mixed methods study

Citation(s):

Creswell, John W., "Steps in Conducting a Scholarly Mixed Methods Study" ( 13). DBER Speaker Series. Paper 48.

CDC Coffee Break: Using Mixed Methods in Program Evaluation

A PowerPoint presentation that discusses the components of conducting a mixed methods study

Citation(s):

Tucker-Brown, A. ( 12, July 10). CDC Coffee Break: Using Mixed Methods in Program Evaluation.

Analyzing Quantitative Data for Evaluations

Issue brief that discusses how to analyze quantitative data for an evaluation

Citation(s):

Analyzing Quantitative Data for Evaluations. (2009, July).

Designing and Conducting Mixed Methods Research

Book on mixed methods research

Citation(s):

Creswell, J. W., & Plano, C. V. L. (2007). Designing and conducting mixed methods research. Thousand Oaks, Calif: SAGE Publications.

Visit your local library to find this book.

Qualitative Research Methods

Book on qualitative research methods

Citation(s):

Hennink, M. M., Hutter, I., & Bailey, A. 2011). Qualitative research methods. London: SAGE.

Visit your local library to find this book.

Mixed Methods in Program Evaluation

A PowerPoint presentation on mixed method evaluations

Citation(s):

Chapel, T. (n.d.). Mixed Methods in Program Evaluation.

Mixed Method Research

A website discusses the components of mixed methods

Citation(s):

Ltd, W. O. (n.d.). FoodRisc Resource Centre. Retrieved May 20, 2017.

Overview of Mixed Methods

An online module that provides an overview of mixed method research

Citation(s):

(n.d.). Retrieved May 20, 2017, from https://cirt.gcu.edu/research/developmentresources/research_ready/mixed_methods/overview

National Bicycle and Pedestrian Documentation Project

Provide detailed guidance on how to conduct a pedestrian and bicycle count

Citation(s):

National Bicycle and Pedestrian Documentation Project.

Pedestrian and Bicycle Data Collection in United States Communities: Quantifying Use, Surveying Users, Documenting Facility Extent

Provides information on how to collect data for pedestrian safety programs

Citation(s):

Schneider, R., Patton, R., Toole, J., & Reborn, C. (2005, January). Pedestrian and Bicycle Data Collection in United States Communities: Quantifying Use, Surveying Users, Documenting Facility Extent. Pedestrian and Bicycle Information Center University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill Highway Safety Research Center, Chapel Hill.

Program Evaluation Tip Sheet: Constructing Survey Questions

A tip sheet that guides users through the process of developing survey questions

Citation(s):

Program Evaluation Tip Sheet: Constructing Survey Questions. (2011, October).

Simple, Inexpensive Approach to Sampling for Pedestrian and Bicycle Surveys

A journal article that reviews potential sampling methodologies for pedestrian and bicycle surveys

Citation(s):

Forsyth, Ann, Asha Weinstein Agrawal, and Kevin J. Krizek. (2012). Simple, Inexpensive Approach to Sampling for Pedestrian and Bicycle Surveys. Transportation Research Record: Journal of the Transportation Research Board 2299: 22–30.

Consensus Recommendations for Pedestrian Injury Surveillance: Report from the Injury Surveillance Workgroup 8 (ISW8)

A comprehensive online report that provides information on pedestrian safety surveillance

Citation(s):

Injury Surveillance Workgroup 8 (ISW8). Consensus Recommendations for Pedestrian Injury Surveillance. Atlanta (GA): Safe States Alliance, 2017.

Steps for Conducting Focus Groups or Individual In-depth Interviews

Provides information on how to conduct an In-depth Interview or a Focus Group Discussion

Citation(s):

Steps for Conducting Focus Groups or Individual In-depth Interviews. (n.d.).

Guidelines for Writing Case Studies

A step-by-step guide on how to write a case study

Citation(s):

(n.d.). Retrieved May 20, 2017, from https://awc.ashford.edu/tocw-guidelines-for-writing-a-case-study.html

How to Analyze a Case Study

An online tool that provides guidance on how to analyze a case study

Citation(s):

(n.d.). Retrieved May 20, 2017, from http://wps.prenhall.com/bp_laudon_essmis_6/21/5555/1422312.cw/content/index.html

HHS Informed Consent FAQs

Provides information on the guidelines for informed consent

Citation(s):

Informed Consent FAQs. (n.d.). Retrieved May 20, 2017, from https://www.hhs.gov/ohrp/regulations-and-policy/guidance/faq/informed-consent/

Pedestrian Safety Evaluation: Quantitative Data Collection Methods

Provides greater detail on specific quantitative data collection methods that can be used to inform pedestrian safety interventions

Citation(s):

Bryan S., Yeager D., and Barnwell L. Pedestrian Safety Evaluation: Quantitative Data Collection Methods. Atlanta (GA): Research and Evaluation Group, 2017.

Pedestrian Safety Evaluation: Qualitative Data Collection Methods

Provides greater detail on specific qualitative data collection methods that can be used to inform pedestrian safety interventions

Citation(s):

Bryan S., Yeager D., and Barnwell L. Pedestrian Safety Evaluation: Quantitative Data Collection Methods. Atlanta (GA): Research and Evaluation Group, 2017.

Section 5

The Good Indicators Guide: Understanding how to use and choose indicators

Provides general guidance on indicators

Citation(s):

Pencheon, D. The Good Indicators Guide: Understanding how to use and choose indicators. NHS Institute for Innovation and Improvement, Association of Public Health Observatories. Retrieved May 1, 2017.

Choosing the Correct Statistical Test

Tool to determine the appropriate statistical test for variable types

Citation(s):

http://stats.idre.ucla.edu/other/mult-pkg/whatstat/

Section 6

Evaluation Report Checklist

A comprehensive checklist of what should be included in an evaluation report

Citation(s):

Miron, G. (2004, September). Evaluation Report Checklist.

Data Collection Planning

Provides detailed information on how to construct a data matrix

Citation(s):

Wingate, L. (2015, June). Data Collection Planning.